For a few brief weeks in fall 2020, Western media buzzed with news of the intense war in Nagorno-Karabakh, an Armenian-populated region that declared independence from Azerbaijan in 1991. The conflict had been “frozen” since 1994, so the new outbreak of violence caught many journalists unawares.
By contrast, this conflict has been a mainstay in the Soviet, then Russian press. The sheer volume of published material – including eyewitness accounts, interviews with notable figures, and incisive, well-researched analyses – far exceeds anything produced by Western media.
Moscow’s knowledge of the region is as strong as it is permanent, dictated mainly by geopolitical interests. The present collection of articles – carefully translated, edited, and culled from a vast repository of Russian-language press curated by East View – presents in book form for the first time in English some of the most important material that has appeared from 1988 to the present.
By bringing together this unique collection, East View Press aims to provide readers with the immediate context of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict through the lens of Moscow, along with some insight into its complex historical, political and ethnic underpinnings. Black Garden Aflame will be of interest to specialists and general readers alike.
“Despite its devastating human consequences, on the global stage the Karabakh conflict unfortunately remains obscure. Not so in the Russian-language press. This superb collection of articles translated from the Soviet and Russian press, covering the longue durée of this conflict from its onset in the late 1980s to the present day, will be an indispensable resource for anyone wishing to understand the longest-running conflict in Eurasia. The vivid and approachable translation brings to an English-speaking readership the shock and fury of the conflict’s outbreak in 1988, the inability of the broken Soviet system to contain it, the descent into war, the protracted ceasefire that followed, the multiple geopolitical interests in play and a catastrophic new war in 2020 – as reported in the pages of Pravda, Izvestia, Nezavisimaya gazeta and other papers by Soviet and Russia-based journalists who knew the conflict intimately. This collection should gain a wide readership among all observers of this conflict and those interested in Russian war reporting in Eurasia.”
– Laurence Broers, Associate Fellow at Chatham House and co-Editor in Chief, Caucasus Survey
“Tonoyan has painstakingly assembled a rich collection of primary sources from the Soviet and post-Soviet press on the roots, evolution, and bloody outcome of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The result is a masterful piece of research that is now the go-to primary source for anyone who truly wants to understand the roots of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh.”
– Christopher Marsh, Director of Research & Analysis, Joint Special Operations University
“To students of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, this unprecedented volume encompassing Soviet and Russian newspaper reports over more than three decades will no doubt become an indispensable resource. Its clear thematic organization, and combination of comprehensiveness with relevant focus provides a much-needed, readily accessible overview of the evolving media narratives in the Moscow press. A must-have for every Caucasus scholar and analyst.”
– Kevork Oskanian, University of Birmingham, UK
“This indispensable collection of articles, documents, and interviews from the Soviet and Russian press brings alive the events and emotions of one of the most tragic conflicts that brought down the USSR. The Karabakh struggle was a test of Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika, a test that the Soviet Union failed, and the result was the breakup of the largest state on the globe. Soviet nationality policy had long proclaimed its success in forging ‘Friendship of the Peoples,’ but these pages expose the fissures and failures of a bold attempt to manage, even solve, the problem of diverse nationalities coexisting in a single state.”
–Ronald Grigor Suny, William H. Sewell, Jr. Distinguished University Professor of History, Professor of Political Science, The University of Michigan
PART 1: OUTBREAK OF CONFLICT IN LATE SOVIET PERIOD
Chapter 1. Demonstrations in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh
Chapter 2. Demonstrations in Azerbaijan
Chapter 3. Anti-Armenian Pogroms in Azerbaijan
Chapter 4. First Clashes and Guerrilla War
Chapter 5. Soviet Efforts to Calm the Crisis
PART 2: INITIAL RESOLUTION AND SUBSEQUENT MEDIATION
Chapter 6. Internationalization of the Conflict
Chapter 7. Interwar Period: Regional Leadership Changes, OSCE Mediation
PART 3: GEOPOLITICAL INTERESTS IN KARABAKH – FOUR MAIN VECTORS
Chapter 8. Turkey
Chapter 9. Russia
Chapter 10. Iran
Chapter 11. The United States
Part 4: REVIVED CONFLICT AND RAMIFICATIONS
Chapter 12. The Four-Day War
Chapter 13. The Road to 2020
Chapter 14. Karabakh War 2.0: Death of the Status Quo